Note: I’m still working on this post, but I already use it as a reference so there’ll be more content over time.

I’ve been quite busy at work with updating a Grails 1.3 application to 2.3.4. While writing a test harness it became apparent that lots of things have changed since I’ve last worked with Grails. Many changes are for the better, especially the integration of Spock framework. However, there were some issues that took me a while to figure out. The Grails docs on testing are comprehensive, but long. Here’s my cheat sheet.

General

Tests & Assertions

Tests without assertions are mostly pointless. Learn to write effective assertions. Hamcrest matchers are there to help you. If you’re writing Spock tests, you don’t even need to write any explicit asserts.

Use Appropriate Test Type

Unit tests are small, self contained, and quick. Whenever you want to test a single method or class, a unit test is usually the way to go. If you find yourself writing a unit test that relies on something else, you’ll either want to make it an integration test or mock the collaborators. Using mocks you can precisely control what conditions your code runs under. You can control return values, exceptions, number of interactions, etc. In Grails, unit tests go under test/unit.

Integration tests are more sophisticated. They actually spin up the runtime environment with all its services, dependency injection, etc to provide a full system. Therefore they are slower than unit tests, but give you a better understanding how your components interact. I like to think of integration tests as tests that take an entire slice of the system and test the interactions between the involved classes. Integration tests go under test/integration.

Disabling Tests

Whenever you need to disable a test, use the approriate annotation. Commenting out a test is not an acceptable solution. In GroovyUnit or regular JUnit tests, use @org.junit.Ignore and in Spock tests @spock.lang.Ignore. Notice that both annotations take a String parameter that communicates why this test was disabled. Use it to make it clear why a given test was disabled.

	@Ignore("do not need to test this right now")
	void "test for a method"() {
		// ...
	}

Never Mix Test Constructs

Between unit and integration tests there are huge differences. Never mix constructs meant for unit tests with integration tests.

GroovyUnit or Spock

Personally I find Spock tests much more expressive than GroovyUnit tests. Quick sample:

class FooSpecification extends Specification {
	void "test for a method"() {
		setup: // implicit, no need to declare this:
			
		// Everything after this statement will be treated as an assertion
		expect: 
			
		add(2 + 2) == 4
	}
}

Check out the Spock docs, samples

Unit Tests

Unit tests are tests where you want to test only a very specific piece of code, a single unit. That means that all dependencies of that code will have to be mocked or stubbed. The test setup is the same for all unit tests and starts by annotating your unit test with the @TestFor annotation. This tells Grails what class you want to test and what variables to create.

@TestFor(MyController)
class MyControllerSpec extends Specification {

	void "test something"() {
		// Grails automatically created a controller field for us:
		controller.doSomething()
	}

}

Configuration

Grails’ config is usually accessed via an injected instance of GrailsApplication using the config property. Grails injects GrailsApplication into unit tests, so you can access it directly:

@TestMixin(GrailsUnitTestMixin)
class MySpec extends Specification {

	void "test something with config"() {
		// grailsApplication gets automatically injected 
		grailsApplication.config.myConfigValue
	}

}

Mocks

During a unit test Grails will not create and inject any dependencies for you so it’s up to you to do so. There’s plenty of things your code interacts with and this section breaks down how to mock these things.

Mocking Logging

Almost all loggers in Grails artifacts are injected automatically at runtime. However In unit tests you’ll have to tell the framework explicitly what you want logging for.

TODO: Mock() - what does it do?

Mocking Domain Classes

Mocking domain classes is a quick and easy way to provide your test code with input. Mocking domain classes is easy, either you provide a @grails.test.mixin.Mock annotation with the domain classes you need, or you use the mockDomain() method which is added to your test by the GrailsUnitTestMixin. One nice thing about the mocked domain objects is that they support most Gorm operations, including criteria and dynamic finders.

If you need to provide your test with data through mocks you can either just create the objects and save them or you can pass i

Example:

@TestFor(MyController)
@Mock([ AddressBook ])
class MyControllerSpec extends Specification {

	void setup() {
		// Explicitly create a new mocked domain object:
		AddressBook addressbook = new AddressBook(name: 'Personal Addressbook')
		addressBook.save()

		// Or provide an entry as a list.
		mockDomain(Entry, [
			[ firstName: 'Hans', lastName: 'Dampf', addressBook: addressBook ], 
			[ firstName: 'Dr', lastName: 'Evil', addressBook: addressBook ]
		)
	}

	void "test something"() {
		// You can now use most Gorm related features, like get:
		AddressBook.get(1)

		// Dynamic finders:
		Entry.findByFirstName('Hans')

		// or Criteria:
		Entry.withCriteria {
			eq('lastName', 'Evil')
		}
	}
}

Note: if you create test data with mocked domain objects, the constraints on the domain class do apply, even when using mockDomain()! I’ve tripped over this a few times. If your mocked domain objects don’t show up, make sure you provide all the necessary fields.

Testing Controllers

Testing controllers is straightforward, but requires lots of mocking as they rely on many different things: services, command objects, domain objects, etc.

Testing Closures

Methods that accept closures as parameters are a staple in Grails development. For example, the mail plugin uses the following syntax:

mailService.sendMail {
	from 'bazinga@test.com'
	to 'bingo@test.com'
	subject 'Amazing Stuff'
	text "Send me your bank data and we'll make millions!"
}

If you’re mocking mailService the question is how to validate the values passed into the closure are correct. The solution is to create a delegate for the closure that captures the values which then can be verified:

class MailVerifier {
	String to, from, subject, text
	
	void to(String to) { this.to = to }
	void from(String from) { this.from = from }
	void subject(String subject) { this.subject = subject }
	void text(String text) { this.text = text }
}

In your test, you have to set the MailVerifier as the Closure’s delegate (example uses Spock):

MailVerifier mv = new MailVerifier()
MailService mailService = Mock(MailService)
1 * mailService.sendMail(!null) >> { Closure c -> 
	c.delegate = mv // Set delegate
	c() // Execute closure
}

when:

doSomethingThatSendsMail('foo@bar.com', '...', )

then: 

mv.to == 'foo@bar.com'

Unit Test Gotchas

This is a growing list of pain points and their solutions

ConverterException: Unconvertable Object of class XXX

So you’re writing a unit test for some service or other class, and after mocking everything out and putting the @TestMixin(GrailsUnitTestMixin) on your test, it blows up with an exception like this:

Caused by: org.codehaus.groovy.grails.web.converters.exceptions.ConverterException: Unconvertable 	Object of class: com.foobar.domain.MyDomainClass
	at grails.converters.JSON.value(JSON.java:199)
	at grails.converters.JSON.render(JSON.java:133)
	... 41 more

The reason for this is that the GrailsUnitTestMixin does not initialize the converter subsystem. To get them working, add the ControllerUnitTestMixin mixin which will set up all the regular converters. See this thread. Example:

@TestMixin([GrailsUnitTestMixin, ControllerUnitTestMixin])
class ContactUsFormJobSpec extends Specification {

groovy.lang.MissingMethodException: No signature of method: com.foo.Rainbow.addToColors()…

This error happened a few times to me:

|  groovy.lang.MissingMethodException: No signature of method: com.foo.Rainbow.addToColors() is applicable for argument types: (com.foo.RainbowColor) values: [RainbowColor{id=null, name=Orange}]
Possible solutions: getColors()
	at com.foo.RainbowServiceSpec.test
error(RainbowServiceSpec.groovy:179)

This happens when you write a unit test and mock only one of the domain classes, but not the other one. In the above example only Rainbow was mocked. Fix this by mocking all classes:

@TestFor(RainbowService)
@Mock([Rainbow, RainbowColor])
public class RainbowSpec extends Specification {}

GroovyCastException: Cannot cast object ‘com.foo.Rainbow@2f7af3’ with class ‘com.foo.Rainbow’ to class ‘grails.converters.JSON’

This seems to happen because the converters are not properly set up in certain unit tests. So lines like this will fail with the above exception:

render rainbow as JSON

Best fix I’ve found takes away some of the readability of the code, but appears to work reliably:

render new JSON(rainbow)

Testing Content Negotiation

Grails allows automatic content negotiation using the withFormat block. However, setting the format in unit tests is something I keep tripping over. To set a specific response type use response.format:

@TestFor(MyController)
class MyControllerSpec {
	void "test response"() {
		response.format = 'xml'
		controller.action()
		expect:
		response.contentType == 'application/xml'
	}
}

Note that the value to use with response.format is not the mime type, it is the name of what is set in grails-app/conf/Config.groovy in the mime type settings. For example:

grails.mime.types = [
		all: '*/*',
		json: ['application/json', 'text/json'],
		xml: ['text/xml', 'application/xml']
]

If you wanted an XML response, you’d use response.format = 'xml' and not response.format = 'application/xml'.


Integration Tests

Testing Services

Services are really straightforward to test. You can even get Grails to automatically inject the service into your test:

class MyServiceSpecification extends Specification {

	MyService myService // Grails will inject the service

	void "test my service method"() {
		String result = myService.doMoreWork()
		
		expect:
		
		result == 'awesome'
	}
}

Grails will inject everything that is known to it into your integration test, including services or Grail’s application context.

Integration Testing Services

Writing integration tests for services is very straightforward. You can get the instance injected directly into your test:

class MyControllerSpecification extends Specification {

	MyService myService // Injected by grails

	void "test method on service ..."() {
		service.myMethod()
		// ...
	}
}

Integration Testing Controllers

Integration testing controllers is just one step away from a full functional test, but has the advantage you don’t need to deal with the HTTP details. Unlike a real functional test you don’t require actual HTTP clients but you talk to the controller directly. Running the test in the same VM as the application under test also has the added benefit that you can look directly into the application to verify the correct behaviour, e.g. check if necessarey database tables have been created.

Dependencies

Unlike services, controllers cannot be injected into integration tests so you’ll have to create them. If your controller relies on a service, you’ll have to manually inject it. You can get the service by getting it injected into your test:

class MyControllerSpecification extends Specification {

	MyService myService // We'll need this service for the controller

	MyController controller
	
	void setup() {
		// We have to create our own controller instance:
		controller = new MyController() 
		// Manual dependency injection:
		controller.myService = myService 
	}
}

Request and Response

During integration tests Grails will automatically set mocked request and response objects on your controllers. To set request parameters, assign values to controller.params.myParam.

If your controllers use content type negotiation, you’ll have to set the expected content type on the controller.response.format field. Setting controller.params.format will not work and caused me all kinds of unexpected behaviour.

class MyControllerSpecification extends Specification {

	void setup() { }

	void "test my controller action"() {
		// Set request parameters:
		controller.params.productId = '42'
		
		// Set a content type:
		controller.response.format = 'json'
		
		// Call the controller action under test:
		controller.myAction()
		
		expect:
		
		controller.response.status == 200
		controller.response.contentAsString == '{"productId":42,"name":"cake"}'
	}
}

Other References

Grails 1.3

Use this fantastic testing cheatsheet for Grails 1.3.x..



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